An ovarian cyst is a closed baglike mass that forms inside the ovary. An ovarian cyst develops during menstrual cycle. Most cysts work as part of the menstruation process – and these are called functional cysts. They occur during ovulation and they also disappear after a period of time. Simple cyst contains liquid or solid materials when the egg is not released during ovulation. Cysts can cause bleeding and pain but can be treated through surgery. During ovulation, hormone or substance is released in the ovary, follicles or small bags where eggs are developed. When eggs are finally formed they follicles are broken to release the eggs. The small bags that do not carry eggs are called corpus luteum but when these follicles or bags are not broken, they form as ovarian cysts. There are different kinds of ovarian cysts namely:
- Follicular cyst – this is formed when follicle or baglike mass that contain egg grow larger and does not break to release the egg
- Corpus Luteum cyst – this is formed during the menstrual cycle. If the egg is not fertilized or pregnancy, this cyst disappears over a period time
- Dermoid cyst – this is related to tissues forming the skin, hair and teeth. It develops from the ovary’s germ cells, are noticeable during adulthood.
- Endometrial or chocolate cyst – is formed due to a disease called endometriosis that is, the tissue develops outside the uterus and when it bleeds in area where it is formed, it becomes a cyst
- Cystadenomas – abnormal growths from the ovarian tissue
- Polycystic ovaries – when follicles or baglike mass do not burst in the ovaries. They grow bigger in size in the ovaries and form as cysts.
Symptoms for ovarian cyst may go unnoticeable until they are found during medical examination. During childbirth, injury or sexual intercourse, they may break and may show symptoms such as:
- Extreme pains in the abdomen
- Profuse bleeding internally
- Painful sexual intercourse
- Weight gain
- Inability to conceive a child
- Heavy menstrual flow
- Painful bower movement
- Changes in menstruation cycle
Diagnosis of ovarian cyst includes physical examination, laboratory tests and information on the medical history of the patient. Laboratory tests include CBC and pregnancy test. Diagnostic test will also be administered such as ultrasound, laparoscopy, and x-ray.
Depending on the type, size and location of cysts treatment for ovarian cyst also consider the age of the patient. For “functional cyst”, the doctor Would recommend waiting and seeing if the cysts would disappear over a period of time because it normally does. For polycystic type, prescription may vary accordingly. For endometrial, cystadenomas, and dermoid cysts, treatment is usually done with surgery. Laparoscopy will be done if the cyst
is smaller however, if the mass is over two and a half inches big, certain procedures will be done to remove it. Such procedures may include: ovarian cystectomy – removal of the cyst, partial oophorectomy – removal or cyst and a portion of the ovary, salpingo oophorectomy – removal of cyst, ovary, and fallopian tube.