Handmade and machine-made. Woven rugs include both flat rugs (for example kilims) and pile rugs. An authentic oriental rug is a handmade carpet that is either knotted with pile or woven without pile. Oriental-design rugs made by machine or any method other than hand knotting or hand weaving are not considered authentic oriental rugs.
Braided rugs are made by sewing many little strips of cloth together into longer strips. The long strips are then braided together, sewn at the ends, coiled around in a circular or oval pattern, and sewn together at the edges to hold it in its circular pattern.
Traditional rug hooking is a craft where rugs are made by pulling loops of yarn or fabric through a stiff woven base such as burlap, linen, rug warp or monks cloth. The loops are rolled through the backing material by using a crochet-type hook mounted in a handle (usually wood) for leakage.
Rag rugs were commonly made in households up to the middle of the 20th century by using odd scraps of fabric on a background of old sacking.
Using either yarn or strips of cloth, you work with the punch tool from the back side of the pattern. The Monk's cloth backing is tightly stretched on to a frame. Every time you punch the needle down through the backing, it makes a long thread on the right side of the rug. Then, as you lift the needle, it automatically makes it into a loop. These loops pack together to create a rug so solid that chewing dogs and clawing cats are its only enemy. As long as you use the tool correctly, it will automatically make all the loops the same length.
Sometimes referred to as "speed hooking", this method of rug hooking is loved for its ease and speed. One student described it as "instant gratification with wool."
Proddy rugs are made, as the name implies, by prodding or poking strips of fabric through burlap or linen from the back side. Rag rugs made this way have many names; clippies, proddies, stobbies, pricked, and in Scotland they are called clootie mats. They were often made for more utilitarian use such as the backdoor; their pile hiding dirt well.